The Audio Commons Ontology

Namespace URI: https://w3id.org/ac-ontology/aco#
Preferred Prefix: ac:
Version Info: Revision: 1.2.2
Authors: George Fazekas, Miguel Ceriani.

The Audio Commons Ontology provides main concepts and properties for describing audio content, both musical and non-musical, on the Semantic Web.

Classes: Audio manifestation, Node, Analog signal, Audio file, Digital signal, Audio category, Audio expression, Audio item, Audio collection, Recording, Audio publication, Signal, Physical sound, Audio clip, First node, Last node, Any node but the first, Any node but the last, Signal production, Syntesis.

Object Properties: node content, encodes, available as, compiled, is in audio category, homepage, image, produced signal, publication of, published, published as, recording of, published audio manifestation, audio feature, is encoded by, signal audio feature, author, available item of, container node, default container node, first node, member node, last node, next node, previous node, original file, production from.

Datatype Properties: bits per sample, channels, duration, sample rate, signal channels, signal duration, node index, signal sample rate.

Classes

Audio manifestation ac:AudioManifestation

The physical embodiment of an audio expression (e.g., a musical track, a sound, an album).

Super-Classes: frbr:Manifestation, cc:Work. Sub-Classes: mo:MusicalManifestation, Audio collection, Audio clip. Domain of: available as, publication of, container node, default container node. Range of: node content, compiled, published, published as, published audio manifestation, author, available item of.

Node ac:AudioCollectionNode

A node of an audio collection. It encapsulates the actual content (ac:nodeContent), the position in the collection (ac:nodeIndex), and links to the previous and following node in the collection (ac:previousNode and ac:nextNode).

Super-Classes: rdf:List, _:b2, _:b3, _:b4, _:b5, _:b6. Sub-Classes: First node, Last node, Any node but the first, Any node but the last. Domain of: node content, node index. Range of: container node, default container node, member node.

Analog signal ac:AnalogSignal

An analog signal.

Super-Classes: Signal. Sub-Classes: mo:AnalogSignal.

Audio file ac:AudioFile

A concrete audio file (encoded in some format)

Super-Classes: ebu:MediaResource, Audio item. Sub-Classes: mo:AudioFile. Range of: original file.

Digital signal ac:DigitalSignal

A digital signal.

Super-Classes: Signal. Sub-Classes: mo:DigitalSignal. Domain of: bits per sample, channels, sample rate, is encoded by. Range of: encodes.

Audio category ac:AudioCategory

Any category that is used to classify audio content.

Super-Classes: frbr:Concept. Sub-Classes: mo:Genre, mo:Instrument. Range of: is in audio category.

Audio expression ac:AudioExpression

The specific intellectual or artistic form that a work takes each time it is \u201crealized\u201d, in the audio domain (e.g., the recording or synthesis of music or sounds).

Super-Classes: frbr:Expression. Sub-Classes: mo:MusicalExpression, Signal, Physical sound. Domain of: published as. Range of: publication of.

Audio item ac:AudioItem

A concrete exemplar of an audio manifestation (e.g., a copy of a CD or a specific media file).

Super-Classes: frbr:Item. Sub-Classes: Audio file, mo:MusicalItem. Domain of: encodes, signal audio feature, available item of, signal channels, signal duration, signal sample rate. Range of: available as, is encoded by.

Audio collection ac:AudioCollection

A collection of audio manifestations (e.g., a sound pack, an album, a result set of a search over a repository of audio content). As an audio collection is an audio manifestation too, collections may be nested. An audio collection is composed of nodes.

Super-Classes: Audio manifestation. Sub-Classes: mo:Record, mo:Release. Domain of: first node, member node, last node.

Recording ac:Recording

The act of recording some sound to produce a signal.

Super-Classes: Signal production. Sub-Classes: mo:Recording. Domain of: recording of.

Audio publication ac:AudioPublication

The act of publishing some audio content as an audio manifestation.

Super-Classes: event:Event. Sub-Classes: mo:ReleaseEvent. Domain of: published audio manifestation.

Signal ac:Signal

A subclass of AudioExpression, representing a signal, for example a master signal produced by a performance and a recording.

Super-Classes: Audio expression. Sub-Classes: Analog signal, Digital signal, mo:Signal. Domain of: audio feature. Range of: produced signal.

Physical sound ac:Sound

A subclass of AudioExpression, representing a (physical) sound.

Super-Classes: Audio expression. Sub-Classes: mo:Sound. Range of: recording of, production from.

Audio clip ac:AudioClip

An audio segment that has been somehow published or uploaded for consumption (e.g., a track in a music label's repository or a sound in an audio repository, library or archive).

Super-Classes: Audio manifestation. Sub-Classes: mo:Track. Domain of: original file.

First node ac:AudioCollectionFirstNode

A node that is the first in the containing audio collection

Super-Classes: Node. Range of: first node.

Last node ac:AudioCollectionLastNode

A node that is the last in the containing audio collection

Super-Classes: Node. Range of: last node.

Any node but the first ac:AudioCollectionNonFirstNode

A node that is not the first in the containing audio collection

Super-Classes: Node. Domain of: previous node. Range of: next node.

Any node but the last ac:AudioCollectionNonLastNode

A node that is not the last in the containing audio collection

Super-Classes: Node. Domain of: next node. Range of: previous node.

Signal production ac:SignalProduction

The act of producing a signal (e.g., through a recording or a synthesis).

Super-Classes: event:Event. Sub-Classes: Recording, Syntesis. Domain of: produced signal, production from.

Syntesis ac:Syntesis

The act of synthesizing a signal.

Super-Classes: Signal production.

Object properties

node content ac:nodeContent

Associates a node with the actual content (an audio manifestation).

Super-Properties: rdf:first. Domain: Node. Range: Audio manifestation.

encodes ac:encodes

Associates a MusicalItem (a track on a particular CD, an audio file, a stream somewhere) to the signal it encodes.

Sub-Properties: mo:encodes. Domain: Audio item. Range: Digital signal.

available as ac:availableAs

Relates an audio manifestation to an audio item (e.g., a media file).

Super-Properties: frbr:exemplar. Sub-Properties: mo:available_as, original file. Domain: Audio manifestation. Range: Audio item.

compiled ac:compiled

Used to relate a person or a group of people who compiled an audio manifestation.

Sub-Properties: mo:compiled. Domain: foaf:Agent. Range: Audio manifestation.

is in audio category ac:audioCategory

Classify a piece of audio content in a category.

Sub-Properties: mo:genre, mo:instrument. Range: Audio category.

homepage ac:homepage

Links a sound, an artist, a record, etc. to a corresponding webpage.

Super-Properties: foaf:isPrimaryTopicOf, schema:subjectOf. Sub-Properties: mo:homepage. Range: foaf:Document.

image ac:image

Indicates a pictorial image (JPEG, GIF, PNG, Etc.) associated to a sound, an artist, a record, etc.

Super-Properties: ebu:hasRelatedPicture, foaf:depiction. Sub-Properties: mo:image. Range: ebu:Picture, foaf:Image.

produced signal ac:producedSignal

Associates a signal production event to the produced signal.

Sub-Properties: mo:produced_signal. Domain: Signal production. Range: Signal.

publication of ac:publicationOf

Link a particular manifestation to the related expression (e.g., a signal or a sound).

Super-Properties: frbr:embodimentOf. Sub-Properties: mo:publication_of. Domain: Audio manifestation. Range: Audio expression.

published ac:published

Used to relate a person or a group of people who published an audio manifestation.

Sub-Properties: mo:published. Domain: foaf:Agent. Range: Audio manifestation.

published as ac:publishedAs

Link an expression to its publication as manifestation.

Super-Properties: frbr:embodiment. Sub-Properties: mo:published_as. Domain: Audio expression. Range: Audio manifestation.

recording of ac:recordingOf

Associates a recording act to the recorded (physical) sound.

Super-Properties: production from. Sub-Properties: mo:recording_of. Domain: Recording. Range: Physical sound.

published audio manifestation ac:publishedAudioManifestation

Associates a publishing act to the audio manifestation.

Sub-Properties: mo:release. Domain: Audio publication. Range: Audio manifestation.

audio feature ac:audioFeature

Associates a signal to an extracted audio feature.

Domain: Signal. Range: afo:AudioFeature.

is encoded by ac:isEncodedBy

Associates a signal to a MusicalItem (a track on a particular CD, an audio file, a stream somewhere) that encodes it.

Domain: Digital signal. Range: Audio item.

signal audio feature ac:signalAudioFeature

Associates the signal encoded by an audio item to an extracted audio feature. Shortcut for ac:encodes/ac:audioFeature

Domain: Audio item, _:b10. Range: afo:AudioFeature.

author ac:author

Used to relate a person or a group of people who authored an audio manifestation.

Domain: foaf:Agent. Range: Audio manifestation.

available item of ac:availableItemOf

Relates an audio item (e.g., a media file) to the corresponding audio manifestation.

Super-Properties: frbr:exemplarOf. Domain: Audio item. Range: Audio manifestation.

container node ac:containerNode

Associates an audio manifestation with the collection nodes that contain it.

Sub-Properties: default container node. Domain: Audio manifestation. Range: Node.

default container node ac:defaultContainerNode

Associates an audio manifestation with a node in the default parent collection (e.g., a musical track to the album it has been published it), if there is such a thing.

Super-Properties: container node. Domain: Audio manifestation. Range: Node.

first node ac:firstNode

Associates an audio collection to its first node.

Super-Properties: member node. Domain: Audio collection. Range: First node.

member node ac:memberNode

Associates an audio collection to its nodes.

Sub-Properties: first node, last node. Domain: Audio collection. Range: Node.

last node ac:lastNode

Associates an audio collection to its last node.

Super-Properties: member node. Domain: Audio collection. Range: Last node.

next node ac:nextNode

Associates a node with the next node in the collection.

Super-Properties: rdf:rest. Domain: Any node but the last. Range: Any node but the first.

previous node ac:previousNode

Associates a node with the previous node in the collection.

Domain: Any node but the first. Range: Any node but the last.

original file ac:originalFile

Relates an audio clip to the original published audio file (if there is such thing).

Super-Properties: available as. Domain: Audio clip. Range: Audio file.

production from ac:productionFrom

Associates a signal production act to a sound from which the signal was produced (e.g., if recording, the recorded sound).

Sub-Properties: recording of. Domain: Signal production. Range: Physical sound.

Datatype properties

bits per sample ac:bitsPerSample

Associates a digital signal to the number of bits used to encode one sample.

Sub-Properties: mo:bitsPerSample. Domain: Digital signal. Range: xsd:int.

channels ac:channels

Associates a signal to the number of channels it holds (mono \u2192 1, stereo \u2192 2).

Sub-Properties: mo:channels. Domain: Digital signal. Range: xsd:int.

duration ac:duration

The duration of an audio clip or a signal in ms.

Sub-Properties: mo:duration. Domain: _:b0. Range: xsd:float.

sample rate ac:sampleRate

Associates a digital signal to its sample rate.

Sub-Properties: mo:sample_rate. Domain: Digital signal. Range: xsd:float.

signal channels ac:signalChannels

The number of channels the digital signal holds (mono \u2192 1, stereo \u2192 2). Shortcut for ac:encodes/ac:channels

Domain: Audio item, _:b8. Range: xsd:int.

signal duration ac:signalDuration

The duration of the signal in ms. Shortcut for ac:encodes/ac:duration

Domain: Audio item, _:b9. Range: xsd:float.

node index ac:nodeIndex

Associates a node with its position in the collection.

Domain: Node. Range: xsd:int.

signal sample rate ac:signalSampleRate

The sample rate of the digital signal. Shortcut for ac:encodes/ac:sampleRate

Domain: Audio item, _:b7. Range: xsd:float.